Telephone survey is replacing the paper/tablet questionnaires with questionnaires on desktop computer conducted through a phone line conversations. Interviewers enter the answers directly into the computer. The questions appear on the monitor and answers are programmed directly into a database. This sort of survey is characterized by high efficiency and accuracy, as computer displays the questions in a correct programmed sequence. Applying all necessary rotations, filters, logic controls. Main advantage is the possibility of collecting data from geographically scattered sample for lower cost and can be conducted faster than face-to-face surveys.
The method involves secret shoppers – trained interviewers without the use of any measuring instrument, acting as potential consumer/ user or observing the surroundings/ typical situation and gathering data for predefined aspects and areas and of interest and reporting the experience. Using this method one can collect various attributes – professionalism, knowledge of the product/service, complaisance, response time, efficient skills for dealing with difficult clients, workplace hygiene etc. The entire scenario is well defined in close collaboration with the client. The participants in the study have no awareness of being part of a research, because with that information their behaviour would be altered from the otherwise spontaneous behaviour. Anonymity and the rights of all parties involved should be well protected. The final data is used for improvement, further education and evaluation of the personnel.
In-depth interview is a qualitative method of data collection, conducted with one person at a time. What distinguishes it from ordinary face to face interview is that it is less structured. The interviewer can explore deeper feelings and perspectives of the respondent in relation to the topic. In this type of interviews questions are open-enden (no possible answers provided and start with “how” and “why”) which allows participants to answer in his own words and authentically express their opinion. The interviewer is engaged in an active listening and accordingly directs questions. Usually these interviews are recorded and brief notes are taken during the interview.
On-line panel research is conducted with a group of individuals who agree to participate in a research over the internet. They are selected according to predefined criteria. They are mostly recruited with reward offers and by highlighting the opportunity to evaluate a new product or service. This method of data collection is effective because it provides a safer environment for participants, increasing the quality of data and is easier to receive answers from respondents from scattered geographical places that cannot otherwise be obtained.
Internet survey (Computer Assisted Web Interview)
Internet research is the kind of interview where respondents answer the questionnaire online. Such research allows for less time to cover a larger number of respondents. The survey is conducted so that questions appear on the monitor and responds are immediately programmed in the data base. This provides easier logical skipping questions, auto rotation issues. As with telephone surveys, the data is immediately available, thus reducing the possibility of additional errors. The biggest advantage in such studies is the ability to implement logos, images, video and audio recordings as part of the research, as in telephone surveys this are almost impossible to implement.
Face to face surveys are probably the oldest and most popular way of data collection. What characterizes this type of survey is synchronizes communication in time and space – the presence of the interviewer, which is providing greater responsiveness and quality of data. Interviewer uses standardizes questionnaire, and administrates to the respondent in the proper order. Questions are mostly closed-ended. Interviewer can help clarifying any questions the respondent finds difficult to understand and serves as a major source of motivation for the respondent’s responsiveness. Because this kind of survey is mostly conducted in the respondents home or workplace it is possible to conduct longer lasting interviews. Another advantage of this type of survey is that unlike in focus group and panel discussions, there is no influence from other respondents opinion.
Focus Group Interview
Focus group discussion is a planned discussion designed to investigate the perceptions, attitudes, motives, preferences for particular subject/ issue of interest. An optimal number of participants is 8 to 10, which will allow everyone to express their opinion on the matter. Participants are carefully selected according to appropriate criteria relevant to the subject of discussion. Audio/ video recording and a transcript is made of every discussion, also there is a possibility of following it alive from another room if requested by the client. The discussion is led by a trained moderator who brings up subject according to previously defined guide. An asset for this kind of discussion is that it allows participants to express their opinion spontaneously in a safe surrounding, while providing the opportunity for the moderator and the client to observe their reactions, emotions and behaviour and by that to explore meanings that cannot be explained statistically.
Central Location Test (CLT)
Central Location test is testing / tasting / trying of various products by consumers in specially adapted facilities near locations / public spaces where large group of people circulates. This type of research is often used for new or modified products, as well as in all cases where direct contact with the product is required – testing concepts, testing products, sensory testing, testing advertising material, packaging testing and so on. Participants are selected according to predefined criteria, while information can be obtained in qualitative or in quantitative data.
Radio and TV monitoring
This type of research involves monitoring of audio and video material on radio and TV stations. It is used to monitor the ads, music videos, songs, advertisements, that is, it provides the exact time and number of repetition of the same during the contractual period on a specific communicational chanel. Information of this kind is used by marketing agencies, music authors and performers, production houses, advertisers.